This is a memo after installing FreeBSD on my MicroServer. Before that it was Arch Linux.

  • toc {:toc}


  • HP MicroServer N54L (Gen7)
  • a handicapped N54L 2core cpu
  • 2x8G ECC DDR3 memory
    • NOTE: N54L is picky about memory: it must be DDR3 ECC unbuffered. I found 2 economical modules on eBay at \$50 / 8GB.
  • 1x256GB SSD for cache and performance-critical data
    • Connected to onboard SATA port (originally for CDROM)
  • 4x4TB HDDs for data
    • Connected to 4 HDD bays
  • PCI-E addon cards:
    • ATI RV810 for HDMI output
    • Some USB3.0 interface card <!-- TODO: what is the brand? -->


Nothing tricky, just boot from FreeBSD-11.1-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img and go through the steps in installer.

Hardware compatibility

The only hardware-related issue is about DMA timeout messages in dmesg. They are SATA "READ" commands issued to the SSD but did not return in 5 seconds:

(ada3:ata2:0:1:0): READ_DMA. ACB: c8 00 80 30 3b 40 00 00 00 00 01 00
(ada3:ata2:0:1:0): CAM status: Command timeout
(ada3:ata2:0:1:0): Retrying command

This seemingly correlates to sys load, but nothing is wrong except the timeout itself (at least smartctl and zpool scrub zfs scrub says so). There are similar problem reports and even a merged patch, however their workaround did not save me.

I found a possible explanation after days: the hint.ahci.0.msi="1" helps when the disk is connected to AHCI controller 0, whereas my SSD was connected to a non-AHCI ATA controller.

A similar hint for atapci.0 (man ata (4)) may have fixed this issue, but I went another way: to flash a custom BIOS firmware that enables AHCI on all SATA ports. After SSD is recognized as AHCI device (ada3 at ahcich5 bus 0 scbus5 target 0 lun 0), the timeout vanished.

References during my quest:

Post Install / Delay boot from USB root

A in /boot/loader.conf prevents system to boot from USB before it gets ready.

an extensive example of loader.conf

Post Install / Packages

BSD have a binary package manager pkg now.

# pkg install                                   \
  bash zsh screen git coreutils rsync curl wget \
  sudo vim-lite cmake ruby devel/rubygems       \
  htop smartmontools ddrescue                   \
  vm-bhyve grub2-bhyve

(Binary packages constitutes a good example of the 20 / 80 rule. Personally I cannot recall a single time when I have to touch make.conf in my short Gentoo journey.)

<!-- TODO: add 'basic' services: microcode update, etc -->

Post Install / User and Group

  • create new user: adduser (interactive)
  • add new user to group: pw group mod wheel -m MY_USERNAME

Post Install / Storage Pool

My no.1 reason to change to FreeBSD is for ZFS. It seems to me that zfsonlinux still have a not-quite-short way to go. The whole storage is like:

  • a syspo zpool, created during install
    • contains a basic FreeBSD system
    • 32GB of SSD, as a log vdev
  • a datapo zpool
    • all 4x4TB HDDs, as a raidz1 vdev
    • 4GB of SSD, as a log vdev
      • used by zfs for ZIL
    • 128GB of SSD, as a cache vdev
      • will be used by zfs for L2ARC (cached IO, dedup table, etc)
      • the 4x4TB of data would make a DDT (dedup table) of around 100G
  • Rest of SSD is reserved, for ssd lifetime and future use

ZFS settings and tuneables:

ZFS References:

Post Install / Services

  • Mail

    • forward alert mail with mailgun: guide
    • some earlier guide required sendmail to be recompiled. This is not the case today.
  • Storage

    • The data pool is exposed with samba
  • VMs

    • vm-bhyve works out of box for creating and managing VMs
    • All VMs uses bridged network and is now part of my home LAN
    • VM1: debian x64 for internal services
    • VM2: CoreOS for public services
    • VM3: archlinux playground (whole filesystem imported from old Arch Linux)

Misc Tricks